DOE Openness: Human Radiation Experiments: Roadmap to the Project
8the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers organization set up to administer the development of the atomic bomb under the ultrasecret Manhattan Project. Originally headquartered in New York, it was moved to Washington, DC, and finally to Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in the summer of 1943. In 1947 it became the Atomic Energy Commission.
9For the transcript of the interview with Tobias, see DOE/EH-0480, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Biophysicist Cornelius A. Tobias, Ph.D. (July 1995).
11The bends are caused by tiny air bubbles released into tissue by a too-rapid decrease in air pressure after staying in a compressed atmosphere, such as the too-rapid ascent of a diver from deep in the sea to normal atmosphere at sea level. It is potentially fatal. Aviators experience a similar phenomenon in ascending too rapidly to high altitude in an unpressurized cockpit without the protection of a pressurized flightsuit. In this circumstance, aviators are at high risk of blacking out and losing control of their aircraft.
12Director of the Division of Medical Physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He operated a clinic at Donner Laboratory, where he treated leukemia and polycythemia vera patients with radioactive phosphorus. For a colleague's recollection of Dr. Lawrence's clinic, see in the interview with Dr. John Gofman (DOE/EH-0457, June 1995), the sections "From Research to Laboratory Production of Plutonium," "Medical Treatments With Radioactive Phosphorus (32P)," "Conflict Between University of California San Francisco and Berkeley," "Heparin and Lipoprotein Research With Human Subjects," and "Radiophosphorus Therapy for Polycythemia Vera."
14an exclusive social club in the San Francisco area, known for back-to-nature retreats to Bohemian Grove (north of San Francisco, in the Russian River country) and the power and influence of its members
18Both General Douglas MacArthur, who was Commander-in-Chief Southwestern Pacific, and Admiral Chester Nimitz, CINCPAC, had been informed by the War Department of the existence and impending use of the atomic bomb in late July 1945. See William Manchester, American Caesar, Boston: Little, Brown and Co. (1978), p. 438. MacArthur was greatly angered on being informed that General Eisenhower and several other commanders had learned of the atomic bomb much earlier than he. See Michael Shaller, Douglas MacArthur, the Far Eastern General, New York: Oxford University Press (1989), p.117.
25For an extended review of the use of radioiodine to treat thyroid disorders, see see DOE/EH-0465, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Dr. Nadine Foreman, M.D. (July 1995).
32a condition of pallor, very low blood pressure, feeble rapid pulse, decreased respiration, restlessness, anxiety, and sometimes unconsciousness that may be experienced by someone who has just been severely or extensively burned
34During World War II, the Manhattan Project had built a vast complex of highly classified facilities in and near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to process uranium for use in atomic bombs. The Atomic Energy Commission took control of these facilities upon its creation and, today, they belong to the Department of Energy.
35Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, founded in 1919 by Herbert Hoover and located at Stanford University, Stanford, California. Hoover researchers conduct interdisciplinary research in the social sciences and public policy.
36For the transcript of the interview with Durbin, see DOE/EH-0458, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Dr. Patricia Wallace Durbin, Ph.D. (June 1995).
38For the transcript of the interview with Gofman, see DOE/EH-0457, Human Radiation Studies: Remembering the Early Years; Oral History of Dr. John W. Gofman, M.D. (June 1995).